Chemical equation for saponification of methyl salicylate ?

Chemical equation for saponification of methyl salicylate

Answer :

Organic synthesis often involves converting one functional group to another. When you perform the experiment today, you will convert the functional group known as an ester into a functional group known as a carboxylic acid. The product of the reaction, salicylic acid should be a white precipitate, the starting material, methyl salicylate is a liquid.
Organic synthesis involves changing part of a molecule by design. This results in a different molecule often with different physical properties.

By changing part of a molecule you change the way it interacts with itself and with other molecules. Intermolecular interactions govern both molecular and macroscopic properties and behavior.
Molecular structure gives insight on how a molecule will interact with other entities. Organic synthesis allows us to manipulate molecular structure and hence, have some say on how a molecule behaves.

Figure 1 shows our starting material. Note the characteristics of the ester. Esters are often liquids (oils) at room temperature. At room temperature they are volatile to varying degrees and can be quite pleasing to the nose since they smell nice. Esters isolated from plants are utilized for chewing gum flavoring and other things. In our particular case methyl salicylate should remind you of something found in the wintergreen plant or birch tree. Oil of wintergreen is 96-98% methyl salicylate. In fresh wintergreen, methyl salicylate exists as the aglycone of the glycoside gaultherin.
Gaultherin also contains primeverose, which is a disaccharide consisting of glucose and xylose. Glycosides will be covered later. This one would be a fun one to go after.
The particular organic acid that we will make (synthesize) is salicylic acid, shown in Figure 1. Carboxylic acids tend to be solids at room temperatures due to the intermolecular forces (hydrogen bonding) present in the carboxylic acid functional group. In particular it is the OCH3 to OH conversion, which is significant. Salicylic acid is the “precursor” to aspirin. Aspirin is a relatively simple aromatic compound that has served to ease pain.

Chemical equation for saponification of methyl salicylate

Figure 1. The reaction we will perform today is known as a saponification. Saponification is defined as a base-promoted hydrolysis of an ester.

Note that in our reaction the intermediate will not be a carboxylic acid, but a carboxylate ion. Since the carboxylate is an anion (negative charge) it has to have a positively charged friend, a cation. The cation is the metal ion of the hydroxide base used. In our case this will be a sodium ion. The final step in the reaction is protonation of the carboxylate to yield the carboxylic acid. This is done by the addition of an external acid, sulfuric acid, as shown in Figure 1.

This organic chemist loves reaction mechanisms. Shown below in Figure 2 is a possible reaction mechanism for today’s reaction. The final protonation step is omitted.

Chemical equation for saponification of methyl salicylate 2

Figure 2: Mechanism of the reaction we will do today.

C6H4(OH)COOCH3 + NaOH –> C7H5NaO3 + CH3OH

Cesium nitride formula ?

Answer :

Cesium Nitride = Cs3N

Coal is considered a rock even though it consists of ?

Answer :

Organic material.

The correct name for h2so3 is ?

Answer :

Sulfurous acid = H2SO3

What type of document was the declaration of independence ?

Answer :

Primary Documents in American History.

What is solicit credit mean ?

Answer :

I was applying at Kohl’s when this question popped up. I dont know what (solicit credit) means.

“All of our Kohl’s employees are required to solicit credit. If asked would you be willing to ask a customer?”
Basically, solicit credit means to seek credit, which can be either recognition or a line of credit (loan). Solicit is a verb meaning ‘To seek to obtain by persuasion, entreaty, or formal application’.
What this means is, when a customer is checking out, and sometimes just shopping, the employee is required to ask them if they want to apply for a Kohl’s credit card.

It means to ask the customer if they want to set up a new credit card

Afaa practice test ?

AFAA practice test is practice for the Aerobic and Fitness Assoc of America exam. This test will help you increase your AFAA test score.

The Aerobics and Fitness Association of America (AFAA) is a fitness education company that was established in 1983, and operates out of Sherman Oaks, California. AFAA offers education workshops and certifications internationally but mainly operates in the United States. AFAA’s certifications are accredited by Vital Research and AFAA is a member of the National Organization of Competency Assurance (NOCA). AFAA also applied for an additional accreditation through an organization recognized by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) and the U.S. Department of Education, meeting IHRSA’s recommendation on accreditation for fitness certification organizations. Through its semi-annual event, APEX, AFAA has succeeded in attracting and certifying personal trainers year after year.

AFAA has expanded the company in Japan, and more recently China. AFAA China held their first workshops at Nirvana Gym in Beijing, China with 50 participants. AFAA Japan was first introduced in 1988. There are now 180 AFAA educational faculty members in Japan.

AFAA – Certifications and workshops

AFAA offers the following certification programs and workshops.

Certifications:

• Personal Fitness Trainer Certification
• Primary Group Exercise Certification
• Kickboxing Certification
• Step Certification
• Military Fitness Specialist Certification

Specialty Workshops

• Aqua Fitness
• Fighting Obesity: A Practical Approach
• Floor, Core & More for Personal Trainers
• Fuzecraze™ Dance Drills & Skills
• G.E.A.R.: Indoor Cycling
• Golden Hearts™: Senior Fitness Training
• Group Exercise: The Practical Way™
• Group Resistance Training
• KickBoxing Skills & Choreography
• Midlife Fitness for Women
• National Board Review Course for PFTs
• Perinatal Fitness
• Practical Pilates™
• Practical Yoga Instructor Training
• Step Skills & Choreography
• Sunrise Yoga
Online-Exclusive Specialty Workshops
• Arthritis Foundation Exercise Program
• Beyond Mat Science
• Diet Free Life®
• Health Coaching Skills
• Jillian Michaels – BODYSHRED™
• NASM – Group Personal Training
• Nutrition for Sports and Exercise
• Power Music | Group Rx RIP
• Prehab vs Rehab™
• Yo-Chi™
• Yoga and Pilates on the Ball Training

Source:

• en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerobics_and_Fitness_Association_of_America
• www.roomofalice.com/8730/afaa-practice-test

Become a Fitness Instructor – AFAA Certifications & Courses. Take the First Step Toward a Career in the Fitness Industry Today. Learn More at www.afaa.com

Which of the following is true of high clouds ?

A. They eventually evaporate to form fog.
B. They do not usually bring precipitation.
C. They are composed mostly of liquid water.
D. They generally produce hail and tornadoes.

Answer :

B. They do not usually bring precipitation.

Under the constitution political rights protect the freedoms of ?

A. citizens accused of a crime.
B. elected representatives.
C. every American citizen.
D. state and national officials.

Answer :

C. every American citizen.

Which of the following statements about agricultural societies is true ?

a. Agricultural societies did not pollute the environment.
b. Agricultural societies impacted the environment less than hunter-gatherer societies.
c Agricultural societies had a higher population than hunter-gatherer societies.
d. Agricultural societies impacted the environment more than industrial societies.

Answer :

c Agricultural societies had a higher population than hunter-gatherer societies.

The first draft of the civil rights act ?

Answer :

The first draft of the Civil Rights Act was at first rejected and revised many times, but it should be known that the final draft was used as the final legislation passed in the 60s.

Determine the significance of plasmids for bacteria ?

A.They help in meiosis and in the manipulation of the plasmids of their host organisms.
B. They help in meiosis and in the manupulation of their genome with the gene of their requierment.
C.They help in reproduction , antibiotic resistance, virulence and competition with other bacteria

Answer :

C.They help in reproduction , antibiotic resistance, virulence and competition with other bacteria

Which is a good example of roman portrait painting ?

A.the four tetrarchs
B.the artemidours mummy
C.the bust of julius caesar

Answer :

B.the artemidours mummy

Portrait painting is a genre in painting, where the intent is to depict a human subject. The term ‘portrait painting’ can also describe the actual painted portrait

Why was roe v wade a controversial case ?

Answer :

Roe v. Wade divided the country into those who believed in an unborn child’s right to life and those who believed in a woman’s right to choose. It raised issues of morality and privacy and is still hotly debated today. In the early 1970s, Norma McCorvey (alias Jane Roe) was a single Texas mother. Pregnant for a third time, McCorvey decided she did not want to bear a third child, but Texas state law prevented her from having an abortion. On Jan. 22, 1973, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the constitutional right to privacy extends to a woman’s decision to have an abortion. The decision came too late for Roe, who was impregnated in 1969 (she had the child and gave it up for adoption), but it guaranteed the right of women nationwide to terminate unwanted pregnancies through abortion by obliging all 50 states to legalize the divisive medical practice.

Date Decided: January 22, 1973

Chief Justice Presiding: Warren E. Burger

Vote Split: 7-2.

Dissenting justice Byron White wrote that the Court could not value the rights of a pregnant woman over the existence of her unborn child. Dissenting justice William Rehnquist wrote that the Fourteenth Amendment did not encompass the right to terminate a pregnancy and that all previous Courts had upheld legislation prohibiting abortion.

What effect did the mayflower compact have on american government ?

A. It reinforced British Parliament’s control over the colonies.
B. It gave settlers the power to establish colonies.
C. It contributed to the development of representative democracy.
D. It granted absolute authority to the colonial governors.

Answer :

C. It contributed to the development of representative democracy.

Why do car manufacturers offer dealer incentives ?

Answer :

Bonuses offered by manufacturers to dealerships to increase the sales of specific models or to reduce excess inventories. Dealers may elect to pass on the some or all of these amounts to buyers. Often, the dealer gives the buyer a choice of a special dealer finance rate or a manufacturer’s rebate. In many cases, the rebate will be a better deal. However, buyers should do their own calculations, as each deal is different.

Dealer incentives are a way for car manufacturers to get rid of too much inventory. If the car is not sold, they cannot make money on it. Therefore, offering an incentive is sometimes the best way to help a car to move off the lot.

What is one way to revise a narrative ?

A. Use dialogue to convey information
B. Use a personal timeline
C. Use a notebook to make observations
D. Use a list to isolate moments

Answer :

A. Use dialogue to convey information

What helps to make northeast china a vast agricultural area ?

Answer :

Northeastern China (known historically for a period as Manchuria and with a latitude of 41 to 47 degrees N) is a geographical region of China consisting of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang. Most of this area is less than 200 metres above sea level. Overall, this region produces a large proportion of the commercial food grains and economic crops that support all of China. In particular, the warmer, southern part has very warm to hot summer weather which permits crops such as maize and millet to be grown with high yields in the fertile soil, mainly from the alluvial deposits of the Huanghe, Huaihe and Haihe rivers.The annual precipitation is 600mm, mostly falling in the growing period. Soybeans, flax, wheat and barley are also very important. The region has large flocks of sheep, and pigsare abundant too. However, the cold and poorly drained northern region of Heilongjiang means agriculture is almost impossible, although the Amur River is a rich fishing ground here and the area also has abundant sheep.

As the climate continues to change, northeast China is likely to see an increase in temperature variability, storms, flooding, drought, heat waves and desertification, which has the potential to shorten or speed up the crop growth period. In response, the government and farmers have begun adjusting the composition and structure of crops and crop species to ensure successful harvests continue. Due to warming, northeast rice production has increased and winter wheat production has expanded northward.

France was invaded by _______ during world war ii ?

Answer :

Germany and Italy

Which of these questions cannot be answered by science ?

A. How much cattle are there in the US?
B. How much grain is consumed each year by cattle in the US?
C. How much growth hormone is in this pound of hamburger?
D. How much growth hormone is safe to eat?
E. All of these questions can be answered by science

Answer :

D. How much growth hormone is safe to eat?

Most molecules that contain carbon are _____ ?

A. Organic
B. Inorganic
C. Compounds
D. MIneral

Answer :

Organic compounds always contain carbon.

A. Organic

Which correctly describes the similarities between identical twins ?

a. They are genetic copies of each other.
b. Their DNA is similar but not exactly the same.
c. Their DNA is the same as their father’s.
d. they are as similar as any two siblings.

Answer :

a. They are genetic copies of each other.

Which statement about anaerobic exercises is true ?

A) You should leave at least a day between anaerobic exercises to let muscles rest and heal.
B) Anaerobic exercise should last longer and be more intense than aerobic exercise.
C) During anaerobic exercise the muscles require a lot of oxygen.
D) Anaerobic exercise is mostly intended to improve cardiorespiratory endurance.

Answer :

D) Anaerobic exercise is mostly intended to improve cardiorespiratory endurance.

What does one mole of h2o correspond to ?

A. 6.02 × 1023 molecules of H2O
B. 6.02 × 1023 atoms of H and 6.02 X 1023 atoms of O
C. 6.02 × 1023 atoms of O
D. 6.02 × 1023 atoms of H
E. 6.02 × 1023 × 2 atoms of H

Answer :

A. 6.02 × 1023 molecules of H2O

An expert is someone who __________ ?

A. expends the least amount of effort for the greatest skills
B. expends the least amount of efficiency for the greatest practice
C. expends the least amount of energy for the greatest result
D. expends the least amount of experience for the greatest movement

Answer :

A. expends the least amount of effort for the greatest skills

Which environment disaster took place near niagara falls ?

A. Chernobyl
B. Love Canal
C. Silent Spring
D. Three-mile Island

Answer :

B. Love Canal